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Just about every BMX track is a unique design. They vary in length, size, shape and layout. Fortunately even though each one is different they all share the same common building blocks. So whether you are talking about a local track or one of the national series tracks you can see how these pieces have been fit together. So let's go over these basic parts of track anatomy.
Anatomy of a BMX track
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The Roller
This is probably the basis for every other type of obstacle on a BMX track. They are typically a small rounded hill less than 36" high. It is not unusal for a single roller to be used as a sort of speed bump at some tracks, but it is becoming less common to have a single roller.
Rhythm Section
When you have a section of the track with several rollers together it is called the rhythm section. This is the area of the track where learning to pump over obstacles pays off. Sometimes the rhythm section is a series of evenly spaced rollers of about the same size. Other times you may have a couple of rollers with a jump in the middle followed by more rollers. The options are almost unlimited.
The most common obstacle on today's track is the jump. The most basic is a single jump which is essentially a very large roller. Those are not as common anymore but a close relative is the Table Top Jump. It is kind of a blend between a single and a double. These are usually very easy for new riders to learn to manuever over. They are also a safer way to learn jumping skills.
A variation on the regular double jump is the step up/step down obstacles. On a step up the first lip is lower than the second one, so it "steps up". They are a little more difficult to get over than a regular double jump but not too much and most riders learn it pretty quickly.

The reverse of the step up is a step down where the first lip is higher than the last lip. Step jumps are not limited to only two lips. Triple step ups and a step up/step down is becoming popular for track rebuilds. Not to mention that most national tracks have a variety of step jumps.
The double jump is similar to a table top with the middle scooped out. These are very common and new riders need to work to master getting over them.
Turns, just like riders, come in every size and shape you can imagine. We have some long, sweeping 180s, tight hairpins, hip turns and even some 90s here and there. Most of us are familiar with turns in general. What we do want to know is the difference between and banked turn and a berm turn. Banked turns are a pretty much even slope from top to bottom. These are usually used on small short turns such as a hip turn in a straight.
Berm turns are a curved surface that increases the slope as you move up the turn. This allows riders to carry more speed through the turns. This is the most common type of turn on most BMX tracks. Although riders need to be prepared for various designs.
Starting Hill
The last major item on our track tour is the starting hill. The first area that you come to is Staging. This is where riders go before their moto is called. Usually in this area there are ropes or painted lines separating the motos. This is where all riders stay until they are called onto the hill. At larger events there will probably be an area just behind staging where riders wait to be called to the staging lanes.

After your moto is called to the hill you will then proceed to the Flat. This is immediately behind the gate area. Usually there will be a person working the staging area making sure that riders are present for their motos and their gate assignments.

The last area is the gate area. This is an inclined ramp that includes the gate and operating gear.
This is where riders actually load into the gate and prepare to start the race. Generally the gates are numbered from 1 - 8 with 1 being the
closest to the starting booth. You should always be aware of what is going on around you when you are up in the gate area as you could be seriously injured if the gate were to come down on an arm or leg.

This should give you a pretty good introduction to the parts of a BMX track. If you have any questions feel free to ask someone. They'll be more than happy to help you out.